The Attitudes toward Codes of Ethics: Do Cynicism and Religiosity Matters?

Martinus Parnawa Putranta

Abstract


The prevalence of corporate transgressions in Indonesia have brought the moral standards of business leaders into public domain. In light of these phenomena, an investigation into whether prospective business leaders of the country are predisposed to moral values is crucial. The purpose of this research was to ascertain the attitudes of the Indonesian future business leaders towards the existence of codes of ethics in business. In particular, the research examined whether the religious orientation of these future leaders influenced the attitudes. A test was also assigned to scrutinize whether the degree of their social cynicism moderated that possible causal relationship. A survey was used as the primary method to collect the data. The sample involved first-year students from a business school at a private university in Indonesia. A total of 111 students involved in the survey. A majority of the students Results of the research showed majority of the respondents were generally supportive shown to have positive attitudes towards codes of ethics. The intrinsic religious orientation of the students also had a positive impact on the attitudes. This positive relationship, however, was mitigated by their negative views of people and social institutions. Managerial implications of the research findings are discussed and the directions of future similar research are outlined. 


Keywords


codes of ethics; intrinsicreligiosity; social cynicism; first-year students; Indonesia.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allport, G. & Ross, J. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2, 423-443.

Aqueveque, C. & Encina, C., (2010), Corporate behavior, social cynicism, and their effect on individuals’ perceptions of the company. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(2), 311-324.

Brands, W.G., Bronkhorst, E.M. & Welie, J.V.M. (2011). Professional ethics and cynicism amongst Dutch dental students. European Journal of Dental Education, 5(2), 205-209.

Chonko, L. B., Wotruba, T. R., & Loe, T. W. (2003). Ethics code familiarity and usefulness: Views on idealist and relativist managers under varying conditions of turbulence. Journal of Business Ethics, 42(3), 237-252.

Conroy, S.J. & Emerson, T.L.N. (2004). Business ethics and religion: religiosity as a predictor of ethical awareness among students. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(4), 383–396.

de Vaus, D.A. (2007). Surveys in social research, (7th ed.). Crows Nest: Allen & Uwin.

Hair, J.F. Jr., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., Anderson, R.E., & Tatham, R.L., (1998). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.

Hill, P.C. & Hood, R.W. (1999). Measures of religiosity. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.

Kurpis, L.V, Beqiri, M.S., & Helgeson, J.G. (2008). The effects of commitment to moral self-improvement and religiosity on ethics of business students. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), 447-463.

Langlois, C.C. & Schlegelmilch, B.B (1990). Do corporate codes of ethics reflect national character? Evidence from Europe and the United States. Journal of International Business Studies 21(Fourth Quarter): 519–536.

Li , F. L. , Zhou , F. , & Leung , K. ( 2011 ) Expecting the worst: moderating eff ects of social cynicism on the relationships between relationship confl ict and negative aff ective reactions . Journal of Business Psychology, 26, 339 – 345.

Maltby, J., & Lewis, C. A. (1996). Measuring intrinsic and extrinsic orientation toward religion: Amendments for its use among religious and framework. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13, 749- 759.

McDaniel, S. W. & Burnett, J. J. (1990). Consumer religiosity and retail store evaluative criteria. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 18, 101-112.

Merrill, R. M., Steffen, P. R., & Hunter, B. (2012). A comparison of religious orientation and health between Whites and Hispanics. Journal of Religion and Health, 51, 1261–1277.

Patwardhan, A. M., Keith, M. E., & Vitell, S. J. (2012). Religiosity, attitude toward business, and ethical beliefs: Hispanic consumers in the United States. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(1), 61-70.

Peppas S.C. & Tyler T. Yu, (2009). Codes of ethics: A comparison of the attitudes of future managers in China and the USA, Management Research News, 32(4), 383-391.

Peppas, S.C. (2003). Attitudes toward codes of ethics: The effects of corporate misconduct. Management Research News, 26(6), 77-89.

Schwartz, M.S. (2001). The nature and the relationship between corporate codes of ethics and behavior, Journal of Business Ethics, 32, 247-262.

Seriki, O., Evans K., Jeon, H.J., Rajiv, D. & Helm A. (2016). Unintended effects of marketing messages on salesperson cynicism, European Journal of Marketing, 50 (5/6), 1047–1072.

Sharma, N. & Patterson, P.G (1999). The impact of communication effectiveness and service quality on relationship commitment in consumer, professional services, Journal of Services Marketing, 13(2), 151 – 170.

Singhapakdi, A., Marta, J.K., Rallapalli, K.C. & Rao, C.P. (2000). Toward an understanding of religiousness and marketing ethics: An empirical study. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(4), 305-319.

Siu, N.Y.M., Dickinson, J.R., Lee, B.Y.Y. (2000). Ethical evaluations of business activities and personal religiousness. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(3), 239–256.

Valentine, S. & Elias, R.Z. (2005). Perceived corporate ethical values and individual cynicism of working students. Psychological Reports, 97(3), 832-834.

Vitell, S. J. (2010). The role of religiosity in business and consumer ethics: A review of the literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(2), 155-167.

Voegel, J.A., Pearson, J. (2016). Religiosity and ethical ideologies as they pertain to business ethics: Through the lens of the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Leadership, Accountability & Ethics, 13 (1), 30-48.

Walker, A. G., Smither, J. W., & DeBode, J. (2012). The Effects of Religiosity on Ethical Judgments. Journal of Business Ethics, 106(4), 437-452.

Weaver G. R., Agle B. R. (2002) Religiosity and ethical behavior in organizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 77–97

Wong H.M. (2008) Religiousness, love of money, and ethical attitudes of Malaysian evangelical Christians in business. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(1), 169-191




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24856/mem.v35i1.1335

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 5685 times
PDF - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Media Ekonomi dan Manajemen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

 
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.