Socio-Legal Research: Integration of Normative and Empirical Juridical Research in Legal Research

Afif Noor

Sari


Legal research is a method used by legal experts to develop legal knowledge. Legal experts have different opinions in explaining the definition of legal science due to differences in opinion in placing legal science as part of social science related to how to apply the law in the practice of legal science is a sui generis science as a practical discipline that establishes standard procedures and guidelines for implementing legal regulations or applied research that has a prescriptive character. The difference in placing the science of science has given birth to the study or field of legal research into normative juridical research and empirical juridical research. Each of these fields has advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, to obtain a comprehensive legal review result, methodological integration is required through an approach called socio-legal research. Socio-legal research is not the same as empirical juridical research, both in the sociology of law and sociological jurisprudence. Socio-legal research is a combination of legal research and social studies of law. Socio-legal research has its objectives and scope, which do not merely look at the law in its empirical questions but also carry out critical academic analysis of the law.


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Socio-legal research; Normative Juridical Research; Empirical Juridical Research.

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Achmad, Mukti Fajar ND and Yulianto. Dualisme Penelitian Hukum Normatif Dan Empiris. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2013.

Adiyanta, F.C. Susila. “Hukum Dan Studi Penelitian Empiris: Penggunaan Metode Survey Sebagai Instrumen Penelitian Hukum Empiris.” Administrative Law and Governance Journal 2, no. 4 (2019): 697–709. https://doi.org/10.14710/alj.v2i4.697-709.

Adler, Michael. “A Socio-Legal Approach to Administrative Justice?” Administrative Justice in Context, 2014, 323–52. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781472560759.ch-016.

Ambekar, Sanjay J. A Socio-Legal Research & Citation Methods. Aurangabad: Educational Publisher and Distributor, 2020.

Amiruddin, Zainal Asikin. Pengantar Metode Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2016.

Apuke, Oberiri Destiny. “Quantitative Research Methods : A Synopsis Approach.” Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review 6, no. 11 (2017): 40–47. https://doi.org/10.12816/0040336.

Arliman S, Laurensius. “Peranan Metodologi Penelitian Hukum Di Dalam Perkembangan Ilmu Hukum Di Indonesia.” Soumatera Law Review 1, no. 1 (2018): 112. https://doi.org/10.22216/soumlaw.v1i1.3346.

Azhar, Kornelius Benuf and Muhamad. “Metodologi Penelitian Hukum Sebagai Instrumen Mengurai Permasalahan Hukum Kontemporer.” Gema Keadilan 7, no. 1 (2020): 20 – 33. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14710/gk.7.1.20-33.

Banakar, Reza. “On Socio-Legal Design,” 2019, 0–22. https://lucris.lub.lu.se/ws/files/65005127/10_aaaSocio_legal_methodology_v_10.pdf.

Bell, Felicity. “Empirical Research in Law.” Griffith Law Review 25, no. 2 (2016): 262–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/10383441.2016.1236440.

Christiani, Theresia Anita. “Normative and Empirical Research Methods: Their Usefulness and Relevance in the Study of Law as an Object.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 219 (2016): 201–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.006.

Creutzfeldt, Naomi, Agnieszka Kubal, and Fernanda Pirie. “Introduction: Exploring the Comparative in Socio-Legal Studies.” International Journal of Law in Context 12, no. 4 (2016): 377–89. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744552316000173.

Davies, Gareth. “The Relationship between Empirical Legal Studies and Doctrinal Legal Research.” Erasmus Law Review 13, no. 2 (2020): 3–12. https://doi.org/10.5553/elr.000141.

Dwi Indriati, Ervina, Sary Ana, and Nunung Nugroho. “Philosophy Of Law And The Development Of Law As A Normative Legal Science.” International Journal of Educational Research & Social Sciences 3, no. 1 (2022): 425–32. https://doi.org/10.51601/ijersc.v3i1.293.

Ferrari, Vincenzo. “Reflections on Some Major Changes in Socio-Legal Studies (1989-2020).” Onati Socio-Legal Series 12, no. S1 (2022): S132–43. https://doi.org/10.35295/osls.iisl/0000-0000-0000-1288.

Gawas, Vijay M. “Doctrinal Legal Research Method a Guiding Principle in Reforming the Law and Legal System towards the Research Development.” International Journal of Law 3, no. 5 (2017): 128–30. www.lawjournals.org.

Halim, Yoefanca, Fricky Sudewo, and Jestin Justian. “Transformative-Participatory Legal Research Method for Harmonizing The Existence of The Living Law in Indonesia.” Jurnal Media Hukum 26, no. 2 (2019): 146–57. https://doi.org/10.18196/jmh.20190130.

Herlambang P. Wiratraman, Widodo D. Putro. “Tantangan Metode Penelitian Interdisipliner Dalam Pendidikan Hukum Indonesia.” Mimbar Hukum - Fakultas Hukum Universitas Gadjah Mada 31 (2019): 402–18. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.44305.

Irianto, Sulistyowati. Hukum Yang Bergerak: Tinjauan Antropologi Hukum. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2009.

———. Kajian Sosio Legal. Jakarta: Pustaka Larasan in collaboration with Indonesia University, 2012.

———. “Praktek Penelitian Hukum: Perspektif Sosiolegal,” 2012. https://www.bphn.go.id/data/documents/materi_cle_8_prof_dr_sulistyowati_irianto_full.pdf.

Kristina, Simion. “Practitioner’s Guide: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Rule of Law Research.” Practitioner Guide by International Network to Promote the Rule of Law, no. July (2016): 6.

L. Whitehouse and S. Bright. Empirical Research Methods in Property Law In. Edited by S. Blandy & S. Bright. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2015.

Lamada, Victoria Tabita Majesty, and Tetania Retno Gumilang. “The Function of Legal Research in Formulation of Legislation.” Jurnal Hukum Prasada 7, no. 1 (2020): 61–65. https://doi.org/10.22225/jhp.7.1.1373.61-65.

Langbroek, Philip, Kees van den Bos, Marc Simon Thomas, Michael Milo, and Wibo van Rossum. “Methodology of Legal Research: Challenges and Opportunities.” Utrecht Law Review 13, no. 3 (2017): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.18352/ulr.411.

Lipowski, Earlene E. “Developing Great Research Questions.” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 65, no. 17 (2008): 1667–70. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp070276.

Luft, Julie A., Sophia Jeong, Robert Idsardi, and Grant Gardner. “Literature Reviews, Theoretical Frameworks, and Conceptual Frameworks: An Introduction for New Biology Education Researchers.” CBE Life Sciences Education 21, no. 3 (2022): rm33. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.21-05-0134.

Mamudji, Soerjono Soekanto and Sri. Penelitian Hukum Normatif Suatu Tinjauan Singkat. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2001.

Marzuki, Peter Mahmud. Metode Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: Kencana, 2011.

Mohamed, Khadijah. “Combining Methods in Legal Research.” Social Sciences (Pakistan) 11, no. 21 (2016): 5191–98. https://doi.org/10.3923/sscience.2016.5191.5198.

Mohammad Al Amaren, Emad, Ahmed Hamad, Omar Farouk Al Mashhour, Lawyer Mohammed Almashni, Ahmed M A Hamad, and Mohammed Ibrahim Al Mashni. “An Introduction to the Legal Research Method: To Clear the Blurred Image on How Students Understand the Method of the Legal Science Research.” International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology 1, no. 9 (2020): 50–55.

Murshed, Feisal, and Yinlong Zhang. “Thinking Orientation and Preference for Research Methodology.” Journal of Consumer Marketing 33, no. 6 (2016): 437–46. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-01-2016-1694.

Nalle, Victor Imanuel W. “The Relevance of Socio-Legal Studies in Legal Science.” Mimbar Hukum - Fakultas Hukum Universitas Gadjah Mada 27, no. 1 (2015): 179. https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.15905.

Nurhayati, Yati, Ifrani Ifrani, and M. Yasir Said. “Metodologi Normatif Dan Empiris Dalam Perspektif Ilmu Hukum.” Jurnal Penegakan Hukum Indonesia 2, no. 1 (2021): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.51749/jphi.v2i1.14.

Popping, Roel. “Analyzing Open-Ended Questions using Text Analysis Procedures.” BMS Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/ Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique 128, no. 1 (2015): 23–39. https://doi.org/10.1177/0759106315597389.

Rezah, Nurul Qamar, H. Muhammad Syarif, Dachran S. Busthami, M. Kamal Hidjaz, Aan Aswari, Hardianto Djanggih, Farah Syah. Metode Penelitian Hukum (Legal Research Methods),. Makassar: Social Politic Genius, 2017.

Roest, Jan Willem van der, Ramón Spaaij, and Maarten van Bottenburg. “Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management.” Journal of Mixed Methods Research 9, no. 1 (2015): 70–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689813508225.

Selviria. “Sistem Pemidanaan Indonesia Ditinjau Dari Pendekatan American Legal Realism Dan Scandinavian Realism.” Simbur Cahaya 25, no. 2 (2018): 189–206. https://doi.org/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.28946/sc.v25i2.330.

Setia, Tunggul Ansari, Tunggul Ansari, Setia Negara, and Universitas Brawijaya. “Normative Legal Research in Indonesia: Its Origins And Approaches” 4, no. 1 (2023): 1–9.

Silbey, Susan S. “What Makes a Social Science of Law? Doubling the Social in Socio-Legal Studies.” Palgrave Socio-Legal Studies, no. 1998 (2013): 20–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-31463-5_2.

Soetandyo Wignjosoebroto. Hukum Paradigma, Metode Dan Masalah. Jakarta: Elsam dan Huma, 2002.

Sonata, Depri Liber. “Metode Penelitian Hukum Normatif Dan Empiris: Karakteristik Khas Dari Metode Penelitian Hukum.” Fiat Justisia Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 8, no. 1 (2014): 15–35. https://doi.org/10.25041/fiatjustisia.v8no1.283.

Soren, Chunuram. “Legal Research Methodology: An Overview.” Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) 8, no. October (2021): 1–44. https://www.jetir.org/view?paper=JETIR2110354.

Steven M. Barkan, Barbara A.Bintliff, Mary Whisner. Fundamentals of Legal Research. Saint Paul: Foundation Press, 2015.

Suhaimi. “Problem Hukum Dan Pendekatan Dalam Penelitian Hukum Normatif.” Jurnal Yustisia 19, no. 2 (2018): 202–10. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.0324/yustitia.v19i2.477.

Sulaiman. “Paradigma Dalam Penelitian Hukum.” Kanun Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 20, no. 2 (2018): 255–72. https://doi.org/DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/kanun.v20i2.10076.

Sunggono, Bambang. Metode Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003.

Travers, Reza Banakar and Max. Theory and Method in Socio-Legal Research. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2005.

Tripa, Sulaiman. Diskursus Metode Dalam Penelitian Hukum. Banda Aceh: Bandar Publishing, 2019.

Achmad, Mukti Fajar ND and Yulianto. Dualisme Penelitian Hukum Normatif Dan Empiris. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2013.

Adiyanta, F.C. Susila. “Hukum Dan Studi Penelitian Empiris: Penggunaan Metode Survey Sebagai Instrumen Penelitian Hukum Empiris.” Administrative Law and Governance Journal 2, no. 4 (2019): 697–709. https://doi.org/10.14710/alj.v2i4.697-709.

Adler, Michael. “A Socio-Legal Approach to Administrative Justice?” Administrative Justice in Context, 2014, 323–52. https://doi.org/10.5040/9781472560759.ch-016.

Ambekar, Sanjay J. A Socio-Legal Research & Citation Methods. Aurangabad: Educational Publisher and Distributor, 2020.

Amiruddin, Zainal Asikin. Pengantar Metode Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2016.

Apuke, Oberiri Destiny. “Quantitative Research Methods : A Synopsis Approach.” Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review 6, no. 11 (2017): 40–47. https://doi.org/10.12816/0040336.

Arliman S, Laurensius. “Peranan Metodologi Penelitian Hukum Di Dalam Perkembangan Ilmu Hukum Di Indonesia.” Soumatera Law Review 1, no. 1 (2018): 112. https://doi.org/10.22216/soumlaw.v1i1.3346.

Azhar, Kornelius Benuf and Muhamad. “Metodologi Penelitian Hukum Sebagai Instrumen Mengurai Permasalahan Hukum Kontemporer.” Gema Keadilan 7, no. 1 (2020): 20 – 33. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14710/gk.7.1.20-33.

Banakar, Reza. “On Socio-Legal Design,” 2019, 0–22. https://lucris.lub.lu.se/ws/files/65005127/10_aaaSocio_legal_methodology_v_10.pdf.

Bell, Felicity. “Empirical Research in Law.” Griffith Law Review 25, no. 2 (2016): 262–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/10383441.2016.1236440.

Christiani, Theresia Anita. “Normative and Empirical Research Methods: Their Usefulness and Relevance in the Study of Law as an Object.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 219 (2016): 201–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.006.

Creutzfeldt, Naomi, Agnieszka Kubal, and Fernanda Pirie. “Introduction: Exploring the Comparative in Socio-Legal Studies.” International Journal of Law in Context 12, no. 4 (2016): 377–89. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744552316000173.

Davies, Gareth. “The Relationship between Empirical Legal Studies and Doctrinal Legal Research.” Erasmus Law Review 13, no. 2 (2020): 3–12. https://doi.org/10.5553/elr.000141.

Dwi Indriati, Ervina, Sary Ana, and Nunung Nugroho. “Philosophy Of Law And The Development Of Law As A Normative Legal Science.” International Journal of Educational Research & Social Sciences 3, no. 1 (2022): 425–32. https://doi.org/10.51601/ijersc.v3i1.293.

Ferrari, Vincenzo. “Reflections on Some Major Changes in Socio-Legal Studies (1989-2020).” Onati Socio-Legal Series 12, no. S1 (2022): S132–43. https://doi.org/10.35295/osls.iisl/0000-0000-0000-1288.

Gawas, Vijay M. “Doctrinal Legal Research Method a Guiding Principle in Reforming the Law and Legal System towards the Research Development.” International Journal of Law 3, no. 5 (2017): 128–30. www.lawjournals.org.

Halim, Yoefanca, Fricky Sudewo, and Jestin Justian. “Transformative-Participatory Legal Research Method for Harmonizing The Existence of The Living Law in Indonesia.” Jurnal Media Hukum 26, no. 2 (2019): 146–57. https://doi.org/10.18196/jmh.20190130.

Herlambang P. Wiratraman, Widodo D. Putro. “Tantangan Metode Penelitian Interdisipliner Dalam Pendidikan Hukum Indonesia.” Mimbar Hukum - Fakultas Hukum Universitas Gadjah Mada 31 (2019): 402–18. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.44305.

Irianto, Sulistyowati. Hukum Yang Bergerak: Tinjauan Antropologi Hukum. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2009.

———. Kajian Sosio Legal. Jakarta: Pustaka Larasan in collaboration with Indonesia University, 2012.

———. “Praktek Penelitian Hukum: Perspektif Sosiolegal,” 2012. https://www.bphn.go.id/data/documents/materi_cle_8_prof_dr_sulistyowati_irianto_full.pdf.

Kristina, Simion. “Practitioner’s Guide: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Rule of Law Research.” Practitioner Guide by International Network to Promote the Rule of Law, no. July (2016): 6.

L. Whitehouse and S. Bright. Empirical Research Methods in Property Law In. Edited by S. Blandy & S. Bright. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2015.

Lamada, Victoria Tabita Majesty, and Tetania Retno Gumilang. “The Function of Legal Research in Formulation of Legislation.” Jurnal Hukum Prasada 7, no. 1 (2020): 61–65. https://doi.org/10.22225/jhp.7.1.1373.61-65.

Langbroek, Philip, Kees van den Bos, Marc Simon Thomas, Michael Milo, and Wibo van Rossum. “Methodology of Legal Research: Challenges and Opportunities.” Utrecht Law Review 13, no. 3 (2017): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.18352/ulr.411.

Lipowski, Earlene E. “Developing Great Research Questions.” American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 65, no. 17 (2008): 1667–70. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp070276.

Luft, Julie A., Sophia Jeong, Robert Idsardi, and Grant Gardner. “Literature Reviews, Theoretical Frameworks, and Conceptual Frameworks: An Introduction for New Biology Education Researchers.” CBE Life Sciences Education 21, no. 3 (2022): rm33. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.21-05-0134.

Mamudji, Soerjono Soekanto and Sri. Penelitian Hukum Normatif Suatu Tinjauan Singkat. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2001.

Marzuki, Peter Mahmud. Metode Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: Kencana, 2011.

Mohamed, Khadijah. “Combining Methods in Legal Research.” Social Sciences (Pakistan) 11, no. 21 (2016): 5191–98. https://doi.org/10.3923/sscience.2016.5191.5198.

Mohammad Al Amaren, Emad, Ahmed Hamad, Omar Farouk Al Mashhour, Lawyer Mohammed Almashni, Ahmed M A Hamad, and Mohammed Ibrahim Al Mashni. “An Introduction to the Legal Research Method: To Clear the Blurred Image on How Students Understand the Method of the Legal Science Research.” International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Advanced Technology 1, no. 9 (2020): 50–55.

Murshed, Feisal, and Yinlong Zhang. “Thinking Orientation and Preference for Research Methodology.” Journal of Consumer Marketing 33, no. 6 (2016): 437–46. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-01-2016-1694.

Nalle, Victor Imanuel W. “The Relevance of Socio-Legal Studies in Legal Science.” Mimbar Hukum - Fakultas Hukum Universitas Gadjah Mada 27, no. 1 (2015): 179. https://doi.org/10.22146/jmh.15905.

Nurhayati, Yati, Ifrani Ifrani, and M. Yasir Said. “Metodologi Normatif Dan Empiris Dalam Perspektif Ilmu Hukum.” Jurnal Penegakan Hukum Indonesia 2, no. 1 (2021): 1–20. https://doi.org/10.51749/jphi.v2i1.14.

Popping, Roel. “Analyzing Open-Ended Questions by Means of Text Analysis Procedures.” BMS Bulletin of Sociological Methodology/ Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique 128, no. 1 (2015): 23–39. https://doi.org/10.1177/0759106315597389.

Rezah, Nurul Qamar, H. Muhammad Syarif, Dachran S. Busthami, M. Kamal Hidjaz, Aan Aswari, Hardianto Djanggih, Farah Syah. Metode Penelitian Hukum (Legal Research Methods),. Makassar: Social Politic Genius, 2017.

Roest, Jan Willem van der, Ramón Spaaij, and Maarten van Bottenburg. “Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management.” Journal of Mixed Methods Research 9, no. 1 (2015): 70–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689813508225.

Selviria. “Sistem Pemidanaan Indonesia Ditinjau Dari Pendekatan American Legal Realism Dan Scandinavian Realism.” Simbur Cahaya 25, no. 2 (2018): 189–206. https://doi.org/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.28946/sc.v25i2.330.

Setia, Tunggul Ansari, Tunggul Ansari, Setia Negara, and Universitas Brawijaya. “Normative Legal Research in Indonesia: Its Origins And Approaches” 4, no. 1 (2023): 1–9.

Silbey, Susan S. “What Makes a Social Science of Law? Doubling the Social in Socio-Legal Studies.” Palgrave Socio-Legal Studies, no. 1998 (2013): 20–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-31463-5_2.

Soetandyo Wignjosoebroto. Hukum Paradigma, Metode Dan Masalah. Jakarta: Elsam dan Huma, 2002.

Sonata, Depri Liber. “Metode Penelitian Hukum Normatif Dan Empiris: Karakteristik Khas Dari Metode Penelitian Hukum.” Fiat Justisia Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 8, no. 1 (2014): 15–35. https://doi.org/10.25041/fiatjustisia.v8no1.283.

Soren, Chunuram. “Legal Research Methodology: An Overview.” Journal of Emerging Technologies and Innovative Research (JETIR) 8, no. October (2021): 1–44. https://www.jetir.org/view?paper=JETIR2110354.

Steven M. Barkan, Barbara A.Bintliff, Mary Whisner. Fundamentals of Legal Research. Saint Paul: Foundation Press, 2015.

Suhaimi. “Problem Hukum Dan Pendekatan Dalam Penelitian Hukum Normatif.” Jurnal Yustisia 19, no. 2 (2018): 202–10. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.0324/yustitia.v19i2.477.

Sulaiman. “Paradigma Dalam Penelitian Hukum.” Kanun Jurnal Ilmu Hukum 20, no. 2 (2018): 255–72. https://doi.org/DOI: https://doi.org/10.24815/kanun.v20i2.10076.

Sunggono, Bambang. Metode Penelitian Hukum. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003.

Travers, Reza Banakar and Max. Theory and Method in Socio-Legal Research. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2005.

Tripa, Sulaiman. Diskursus Metode Dalam Penelitian Hukum. Banda Aceh: Bandar Publishing, 2019.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.56444/jidh.v7i2.3154

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